Sharing ideas and work among scientists in different fields


Desktop nanofabrication with massively multiplexed beam pen lithography

Cross-pollination of ideas among scientific disciplines is key to creative solutions, a U.S. nanotechnology pioneer says.

Building networks of outstanding scientists, engineers and clinicians will promote development of creative solutions to complex societal needs in an age of specialization, Northwestern University Professor Chad Mirkin says.

Mirkin is the founding director of the International Institute for Nanotechnology, an institute that brings together more than 190 faculty researchers from 25 different disciplines.

Mirkin discussed the IIN from inception to realization in a presentation titled “University Convergence Institutes” at the American Association for the Advancement of Science annual meeting in Chicago.

“The IIN provides the essential framework to overcome traditional divisions between university departments and schools,” Mirkin said…

The IIN is an umbrella organization for interdisciplinary research into transformative nanotechnologies including nanomedicine, nanomaterials and devices, nanotechnology for energy, the environment, security and defense, and nanotechnology solutions for food and water.

“It has enabled us to attract researchers with deep expertise in their fields, support and enable creative synergy, enhance translational capabilities and build one of the largest and most productive nanotechnology institutes in the world,” Mirkin said.

I’m not lurching off into a whole dissertation. I’d just like to mention some of the most advanced systems of alternative fuel development have come about in this manner. I’ve posted articles in recent years from scientists at Purdue – and at Cornell – where investigators in chemistry happened into collaboration with botanists almost by accident. Though the universities where they worked were supportive of this kind of interaction.

The best example in the tech world was, of course, the original style at Hewlett-Packard. Messrs Hewlett and Packard had a rule that any project an engineer or scientist was working on had to be kept out in the open on their desk. That way anyone who happened by could see what someone else had thought of – and participate or start a spinoff on their own. They called it management by wandering around.

I’m not certain; but, I have the feeling the practice still hasn’t caught on here in the States. I hope I’m wrong.

Geneticists producing atlas mixing genomes and events


The Silk Road, land and sea

The rise and fall of empires, the march of armies, the flow of trade routes, the practice of slavery — all these events have led to a mixing of populations around the world. Such episodes have left a record in the human genome, but one that has so far been too complex to decipher on a global scale.

Now, geneticists applying new statistical approaches have taken a first shot at both identifying and dating the major population mixture events of the last 4,000 years, with the goal of providing a new source of information for historians.

Some of the hundred or so major mixing events they describe have plausible historical explanations, while many others remain to be accounted for. For instance, many populations of the southern Mediterranean and Middle East have segments of African origin in their genomes that were inserted at times between A.D. 650 and 1900, according to the geneticists’ calculations. This could reflect the activity of the Arab slave trade, which originated in the seventh century, and the absorption of slaves into their host populations…

Though all humans have the same set of genes, their genomes are studded with mutations, which are differences in the sequence of DNA units in the genome. These mutations occur in patterns because whole sets of mutations are passed down from parent to child and hence will be common in a particular population. Based on these patterns, geneticists can scan a person’s genome and assign the ancestry of each segment to a particular race or population.

The team led by Dr. Simon Myers has developed a statistical technique for identifying the chromosomal segments with particular precision. This enables them to perform a second feat, that of assigning a date to the one or more mixing events that have affected a population…

One of the most widespread events his group has detected is the injection of Mongol ancestry into populations within the Mongol empire, such as the Hazara of Afghanistan and the Uighur Turks of Central Asia. The event occurred 22 generations ago, according to genetic dating, which corresponds to the beginning of the 14th century, fitting well with the period of the Mongol empire.

In another example, the European colonization of America is recorded in the genomes of the Maya and Pima Indians. And Cambodian genomes mark the fall of the Khmer empire in the form of ancestral DNA from the invading Tai people…

Dr. Myers and Dr. Hellenthal said that they hoped historians would find their work useful, but that they had not collaborated with historians.

“In some sense we don’t want to talk to historians,” Dr. Falush said. “There’s a great virtue in being objective: You put the data in and get the history out. We do think this is a way of reconstructing history by just using DNA.”

Hopefully, this weekend, I intend to revisit a favorite topic – cross-pollination of research between varying scientific disciplines. Some universities, research facilities – even traditional engineering firms – have long held this practice to be especially beneficial. Here’s a unique contribution just waiting to be interpolated.

The group led by Myers, Hellenthal and Falush have provided a valuable service to every side of the study of history.